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Scientific Evidence
Aqueous Extract of Black Maca (Lepidium meyenii) on Memory Impairment Induced by Ovariectomy in Mice.
Black maca (0.5 and 2.0 g/kg) increased step-down latency when compared to OVX control mice. Black maca decreased MDA and Ache levels in OVX mice; whereas, no differences were observed in MAO levels. Finally, black maca improved experimental memory impairment induced by ovariectomy, due in part, by its antioxidant and Ache inhibitory activities.
Effect of chronic treatment with three varieties of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on reproductive parameters and DNA quantification in adult male rats.
Yellow and Black Maca increased epididymal sperm count after 84 days of treatment without affecting DSP. Maca seems to act as a modulator of sperm count at the reproductive tract level.
Effect of different fractions from hydroalcoholic extract of Black Maca (Lepidium meyenii) on testicular function in adult male rats.
The greatest effect on spermatogenesis was observed in the ethyl acetate fraction from the hydroalcoholic extract of Black Maca, suggesting that the compounds related to the beneficial effect on sperm production of Black Maca are presented in this fraction.

Antioxidant components could play a role in the effect of increased epididymal sperm concentration observed in the model.
Aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts of Black Maca (Lepidium meyenii) improve scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice.
Black Maca significantly ameliorated the scopolamine-induced memory impairment as measured in both the water Morris maze and the step-down avoidance tests. Black Maca extracts inhibited AChE activity, whereas MAO activity was not affected. These results indicate that Black Maca improves scopolamine-induced memory deficits.
Effect of Black maca (Lepidium meyenii) on one spermatogenic cycle in rats.
First action of Black maca in male rats was at epididymal level increasing sperm count after one day of treatment, whereas an increase in sperm count was observed in vas deferens at third day of treatment. An increase in DSP was observed after 7 days of treatment with black maca.
Effect of three different cultivars of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on learning and depression in ovariectomized mice.
The three varieties : yellow, red and black maca were effective to reduce finding latency in non trained and trained mice (P < 0.05). In the force swimming test, all varieties assessed reduced the time of immobility and increased uterine weight in OVX mice. CONCLUSION: Black Maca appeared to have more beneficial effects on latent learning in OVX mice; meanwhile, all varieties of Maca showed antidepressant activity.
The Methyltetrahydro-{beta}-Carbolines in Maca (Lepidium meyenii).
Maca, a plant native to the Peruvian highlands, contains (1R,3S)-1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline-3-carboxylic acid (MTCA). The family of the tetrahydro-beta-carbolines has been associated with both biologically helpful and harmful compounds. We present evidence that MTCA is a natural constituent of Maca, and on consumption no toxicity is found. This suggests that, when consumed as multi-component, MTCA may loose its adversity as drug action.
Effect of Lepidium meyenii (maca) roots on spermatogenesis of male rats.
Treatment with Lepidium meyenii resulted in an increase in the weights of testis and epididymis but not the seminal vesicle weight. The length and frequency of stages IX-XIV seminiferous tubules, where mitosis occurred, were increased and stages I-VI were reduced in rats treated with Lepidium meyenii. CONCLUSION: The Lepidium meyenii root invigorates spermatogenesis in male rats by acting on its initial stages (IX-XIV).
Effect of alcoholic extract of Lepidium meyenii (Maca) on testicular function in male rats.
Ethanolic extract of Maca increased the length of stages IX-XI epithelium at treatment day 7, day 14 and day 21. Epididymal sperm count was increased with 48 mg/day at all times. With 96 mg/day an increase in sperm count was observed at day 7, but it was reduced at day 14 and day 21 of treatment. Serum testosterone levels were not affected. The alcoholic extract of Maca activates spermatogenesis at a dose of 48 mg/day in rats, but 96 mg/day may suppress it. ( Asian J Androl)
Lepidium meyenii (maca) varieties did not alter female reproductive parameters in adult intact rats.
The maca varieties (yellow, red and black) did not affect any phase of estrous cycle, number of ova recovered within oviduct, serum estradiol levels, wet uterine and body weights as compared with control group (vehicle). The three varieties of maca did not present effects on the regulation of the number of ova released at ovulation in adult intact female rats.
Biological effects of Lepdium meyenii, MACA, a plant from the Highlands of Peru.
The experimental scientific evidences showed that maca could be useful for their nutritional, fertility-enhancer properties, and antioxidants effects. It has been also observed an effect for prostate hyperplasia. In men maca has favorable effects on energy. Mood, decreasing anxiety, and improving sexual desire. Maca improves sperm production, sperm motility and semen volume. It was not affected serum levels of testosterone, estradiol, LH, FSH and prolactin. However, more research will be needed, particularly as clinical trials.
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